Educational Technology Policies in India and Access
It is usually understood that policy defines the course of action to attain particular outcomes. Policy outcomes, in turn, are mediated by institutions. Policies deal with multiple arenas and education is one among them. There have been number of policies that have brought in many changes in the systems of education management, including curricula and use of technology. // The Indian national educational policy of 1986, which was subsequently modified in 1992, stressed the need for using Educational Technology (ET) to improve access, quality and governance of education. Two Central government schemes have emerged out of these policies. They include ET and computer literacy and studies in schools (CLASS). These two important initiatives led in 2004 to another policy called information and communication technology (ICT) in schools. The ICT role in education continued to get the attention of the Government of India. In 2005 two policies were framed: 1) National Curriculum Framework and 2) Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA) for universal secondary education. The main objective of all these policies is to create an environment for optimal utilisation of ICT in education. In continuation to this, there have been quite a few changes introduced to effectively implement enhanced technology in teaching and learning to increase the access at all levels of education. // The present paper focuses on the analysis of educational technology related policies formulated by the Central and State governments in India. It also deals with the strategies and institutional mechanisms that are available to effectively implement these policies. This would contribute to reflecting and modifying the existing educational policies to address the current needs. This has greater implications for promotion of equity, access and sustainability in the arena of education. // Paper ID 276
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